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What is Artificial Intelligence? AI


What is artificial intelligence?

AI refers to only a computer that is able to "seem" intelligent by analyzing data and producing a response.

So the question arises what is Artificial Intelligence?

John McCarthy, who coined the term “Artificial Intelligence” in 1955, defined it as "the
science and engineering of making intelligent machines".

This concept was founded on the belief that human intelligence "can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it."

The central goals of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning,
natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence is still among the field's long-term goals. There are a large number of tools used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics, and many others. The AI field is interdisciplinary, including computer science,
mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy and neuroscience, as well as other specialized fields such as artificial psychology.

Artificial Intelligence is definitely a touchy subject for the humans The very mention of the term conjures up images of apocalyptic societies where intelligent super-computers have either enslaved the human race or eradicated the inferior human species altogether.

Are these concerns realistic? Or are they baseless worries of people who don't understand the issue? Artificial intelligence does not equate to artificial life, the common misconception which has been beautifully portrayed in movies like Terminator, I-Robot, 2001: A Space Odyssey .

Artificial Intelligence has become many things to many people.

Starting with the name which is a complete misnomer:

Intelligence is difficult to define so usually examples are given - that is not useful. Intelligence should be regarded as a property of some system (usually biological) but we would like to apply it to hardware. Being a property (not some sort of physical thing ) you should not apply the term “artificial” to it. Intelligence is a property. This property ,measures adaptability - thus intelligence systems are adaptable. But adaptability is a measure with respect to some sort of environment. For Biological system it is the environment. At this point you may wonder what IQ actually measures …. I know I do!

Computers are not environmentally orientated so they are not really adaptable (that is why they must be programmed). Some sensor-based systems such as radars and sonars have a modicum of intelligence in that they adapt to environment conditions via sensors put there to give them feedback.

Characteristics of a AI

Feedback (learning from sensors)

Feedback (learning from self created symbolic representations of a model of their environment) (we call this thought)

The ability to visualise (see images - computers process images but they do not see them - we see the result .

(The philosophers call the internalise experiences such a seeing and feeling qualia) The computer people are not usually aware of such phenomena.

The ultimate Quale (singular form) is consciousness. With this ability you can model outcomes from mental images. The process we call evolution has supplied us with a series of generic actions called goals which allow us to use a form of decomposition and reduce a generic action to a sequences of real actions. With this you can use language (discourse production), mathematics and even programming

Thus AI or machines with intelligence have very little to do with computing

Popular AI (or computer-orientated hype over the label AI)

Everything you hear about tends to belong to this category. Machine learning, artificial neural networks. Big Data techniques, Data mining techniques - all computing in a sort of heuristic semi-numerical techniques way.

The only possible exemption is real-time robotics.

Currently we are not progressing AI any more than we have done in the last 50+ years. The only real example (not called AI) is ourselves.

Many animal species will be one day be shown to possess an amount of this intelligence property.

I have fought shy of a short accurate definition, because it is hard to do. But I hope to have separated the hyperbole from the original ideas and discipline which was clearly identified back in the 1940 and 50s with people like Hebb, McCulloch, Pitts, Turing, Weiner, von Neumann (he gets everywhere!). Then again later with Papert, Minski, Kohonnen.
History of Artificial Intelligence 

The history of artificial intelligence dates back to antiquity with philosophers mulling over the idea that artificial beings, mechanical men, and other automatons had existed or could exist in some fashion.

Thanks to early thinkers, artificial intelligence became increasingly more tangible throughout the 1700s and beyond. Philosophers contemplated how human thinking could be artificially mechanized and manipulated by intelligent non-human machines. 

The thought processes that fueled interest in AI originated when classical philosophers, mathematicians, and logicians considered the manipulation of symbols (mechanically), eventually leading to the invention of a programmable digital computer, the Atanasoff Berry Computer (ABC) in the 1940s. This specific invention inspired scientists to move forward with the idea of creating an “electronic brain,” or an artificially intelligent being.


Artificial Intelligence, is a human infant learns through experience and relating experience with actions. Example It learns that hands are burnt when inserted in hot water. Then he learns to identify hot water by the steam coming. Learns the reflex that needs if hands are put in hot water. So eventually learns all parameters related to this incident.

Similarly a farmer learns prediction of whether through experience by looking at the sky, time of the year, direction of breeze etc.

Identically, a machine is taught to learn using huge amounts of data. It can learn human behaviour patterns and start predicting actions, can predict whether, predictive and preventive maintenance etc. This learning of things using available set of data that brings a flavour of intelligence in computers is called artificial intelligence.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the very important technique in the science of computing which in process involves the collection of huge data through different sources need to be filtered using the laws of statistics, probability and other mathematical method with a target to get the exact desicion.

For example : Let's talk about the Honda Asimo robot. It is the most intelligent robot ever made. It can walk, communicate, identify and do major works. It never strikes with any object on its way. It never falls in the crack. It never take wrong desicions. 

Let us assume the Asimo is walking in the street with an aim to identify Mr.Somebody. All of its sensor keeps on working collecting huge data which includes digital images and signals of the sorrounding with each object present there. The electronic system collects the data and the AI algorithm very fast identify the right image pattern of Mr.Somebody comparing with the stored image pattern. It then identifies Mr.Somebody and proceeds its work. This is different than the human intelligence. This is giving some intelligence to the machine called as AI.

It sounds an easy stuff but for the implementation of AI algorithm any computer scientist or engineer devote deep concentration using the laws of Mathematics and Computer science.

Hope this description gives the outer sense of the topic

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